Tuesday, March 17, 2020

Great Research Essay Sample Sensory Adaptation Experiment

Great Research Essay Sample Sensory Adaptation Experiment Paper on Sensory Adaptation Experiment Sensory Adaptation experiments provide individuals with the experience of learning the changes in perception of messages sent to the nervous system and the response each message triggers from the brain. Every individual has senses, but not every individual uses those senses allowing the brain to process the messages (Sternberg, Mio Mio, 2009). The paper will discuss the results on the sensory adaptation of different experiments. The first experiment will involve rubbing my index fingers over the surface of coarse sandpaper and rating its coarseness on a scale of 1 to 7. The second experiment will involve two cups; one containing sugar water and the second containing fresh water. The third experiment will involve the use of three medium sized bowls and involves submerging my hands in the first two and simultaneously into the third one. Sensory Adaptation takes place when sensory receptors alter their sensitivity to stimuli. These experiments are to assess the results registered in th e sensory systems on different parts of the body. The first experiment involved rubbing my index fingers over a piece of coarse sandpaper. This experiment was carried out for a few minutes to rate the coarseness on a scale of one (soft) to seven (very coarse). After about two minutes had elapsed, I rubbed my index fingers over the same sandpaper and recorded the coarseness on the scale. The results registered in this experiment showed that an individuals perception of coarseness does change. The first time I rubbed my fingers on the sandpaper, the perception rating I registered was a six, which was very coarse. The second time I rubbed my fingers on the coarse sandpaper after about two minutes, I registered a rating of three which was less coarse than the first time. What was the significance of these results? I adapted to the feeling of the paper. The feeling on my fingers and the surface on the sandpaper were the same. I adapted to the sensation of coarseness, and after the second time round, I did not notice the difference betwee n soft and course as registered in the first trial. The second experiment involved setting up one cup with a sugar solution and the second cup with fresh water. I carried out the experiment by taking a sip of sugar water, swished it around my mouth for several seconds. After a certain amount of time had elapsed, I disposed of the sugar water. The results I registered showed that the taste in my mouth became less and less sweet as time lapsed. The reason for this was that the sensory nerves in my mouth become used to, or rather, adapted to the sweet taste. The second part of the experiment was to sip the fresh water and dispose of it. The taste of this water felt very different in my mouth. The reason for this was that the sensory nerves in my mouth adapted to the sweet tasting water. When I introduced the fresh water, the senses experienced a different taste. The final experiment involved the use of three medium sized bowls. The first bowl contained very hot water, but not painfully hot. The second bowl contained very cold tap water. The third one contained a mixture of very cold and hot water. The bowls were set up so that the cold-water bowl was in front of my right hand, and the hot water bowl was in front of my left hand. The lukewarm bowl was in between the two. The experiment involved submerging each hand in the bowl in front of the respective arms. This continued for about three minutes. Once the time elapsed, I took my hands from the bowls and placed them in the third bowl. The results registered were not very noticeably different. The reason my hands were not receptive was that they adapted to the water I initially put them. When I placed my hands in the lukewarm bowl, there was a less conspicuous difference to the senses. The primary sensory system involved in the first experiment was the sense of touch. The second experiment tested the sense of taste while the third experiment tested my sense of touch as well. Each of these systems experienced adaptations to the stimulus presented to me. Adaptation is an important factor in evolution. According to Nicholas (2009), the primary reason for its significance is the need for man to adjust to changes in their senses, environment and stimuli. If an individual is not able to adapt, he experiences difficult circumstances in handling even the smallest variance in his environment. If an individual is not able to handle the change or adapt to the change, this will create complexities not only in the sensory system, but also in the psychological system as well (Noback, C. R. et al, 2007). Additionally, lack of adaptation to certain situations may lead to the development of mental stress and disruption of the central nervous system. When an individual is able to ad apt to certain situations, he or she is able to evolve both in the mental and physical capacity.

Saturday, February 29, 2020

Analysing The Universality Of Human Rights Philosophy Essay

Analysing The Universality Of Human Rights Philosophy Essay Abstract:This paper aims to critically study and assess the different perspectives on the universality of human rights,and locate the position of the perspectives according to Dembour’s four schools of thoughts. The perspectives of human rights on cultural divesity and linguistic diversity have also been emphasized upon here. Universality of Human Rights & its Different Pespectives Human Rights are rights that one is entitled to enjoy simply because of thefact that he is a human being. These are equal and inalienable for all , and cannot be denied to anyone human in nature and form. Thus they are Universal in nature, and function as a legitimate standard for a political system. This ofcourse willlead to a discussion of being ‘human’ and enjoying the human rights(Donelly 2003). Being Human beings, everyone deserves to enjoy certain rights after fulfilling certain obligations to the society. These fulfillment of obligations are based on morality of the people as an individual and as a class, judged by the society at large and then being endowed with certain privileges to be enjoyed in the form of Political rights. Rectitude and entitlement, the two aspects of a right, are directed towards a preset standard of conduct, which bings forth the duty and obligation that an individual is expected to perform, and calls for individual and universal attention towards righteousness . Performance of this duty entitles the individual to enjoy the et of privileges in the form of a ‘right’. To have a right to something, makes one entltled to own the sole authority to enjoy it, denial or repression of which entitles one to have special claim for justice. Rights enjoyed by one cannot be reduced because it clashes with correlative duties of another, neither can it be reduced for enjoying a benefit. Hence, rights give authority to its holders , and not just benefits( Donelly 2003). Rights are meant to be exercised, enjoyed, respected, and enforced. These are the four principle dimensions of a right. Respecting ones rights gives other the privelege of enjoying and asserting his own rights, otherwise it is liable to be questioned , threatened or denied. A violation of a right is an injustice doneto someone, and is subject to distinctive force and remedial logic(Donelly 2003). Ludwig Wittgenstein, the analytical philosopher propagated that a concept should not be defined by what one thinks it means , but by its meaning and practice in everyday life. One should rather analyse facts on the basis of observation, rather than thinking. This led to the introduction of his concept of Family Resemblance The concept of Human rights when approached through the family resemblance matrix, highlight the following factors: Morality Their existence disregarding social recognition Possessed by every human being Their arbitrariness Emergence through political and social struggle Their usage for political communication Servitude to bourgeois Basis on human nature Bear a socio-legal concensus Ability toget transformed into legal rights ( Dembour 2006). Dembour argues that , although most people believe in the combination of the first three factors as the essential element of the concept of Human Rights, or that human rights exist irrespective of bein having social recognition as every man is deemed to enjoy it being human beings as the rights are framed on the basis of human nature, it should not be assumed that it rests on a socio- legal consensus, or bears arbitrariness in its state. He believes that Human Rights have come into existence as result of force of language use, and believes that they would cease to exist if conversation ordiscussions about them die down Different competingconcepts of Human rights exist inthe society,and people fight to establish their own opinions disregarding others. Donelly’s concept og Human Rights though is encouraging for many, but highlight some political or intellectual inadequacie s in termsof moral integrity in his book Universal Rights in Theory and Practice. Harsher’s Philosphy Of Human Rights points out that Human Rights demands that every single individual’s dignity is considered in an existing political norm, where one individual’s security of Human Rights leads to the security of another , mankifesting this security to an indefinite expanse and time in the society(Dembour 2006).

Thursday, February 13, 2020

Legislative Proposal Topic Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Legislative Proposal Topic - Essay Example In addition, containers with a capacity less than 750 milliliters would not contain 4 liters of the beverage. Secondly, the current law prohibits transportation of alcoholic beverages that comes from industries outside Commonwealth according to part B. Such transportation limitation remains limited to less than four liters of beverage of one gallon especially when transit occurs in metric-sized containers (LIS 1 ­Ã‚ ­Ã‚ ­). Based on part A2, alcoholic beverages other than wine and beer, four gallons, provided that not more than one gallon of that shall be in containers holding less than one-fifth of a gallon. If any part of alcoholic beverage in transit remains held in metric sized containers, the four gallons limitation shall be taken as 12 liters, with not more than 6 liters of that should thereof be containers having a capacity less than 750 milliliters. The proposal as mentioned in part B below, aims at increasing transit quantities. As aforementioned, the proposal for the part B of the law seeks to increase the amount of other alcohol such as spirits in transit within the state. For the beverage produced in common wealth, the amount transported at a time should increase limits from three liters to four liters. For alcohol produced outside the Commonwealth, quantity limit should increase to two galloons from current one gallon. The amendment will not change morality of taking alcohol or endanger society culture. Larger quantity purchase guarantees better discounts on the prices of alcohol gives clients. Citizens of Virginia will be able to buy and transport larger alcohol quantities hence will save large amount of money. In addition, liquor stores will make more return to raise livelihood of personnel working in the premises while at the same time remitting higher tax return to the government. The current law seems to be unfair in regulation spirits manufacturing companies’ products. The amendment will also improve social life of those organizing legal

Saturday, February 1, 2020

Fresh Water Pollution Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Fresh Water Pollution - Essay Example Nutrient pollution is caused by excess seepage of nutrients into the water; microorganisms that live in the water cause microbiological pollution. Suspended matter is caused by pollutants whose molecules are too big to mix thus form a silt at the bottom or remain floating at the top. A number of human activities such as industries that releases their effluent to fresh water bodies bring about surface water pollution. Oxygen depletion is the result of the release of too much biodegradable waste into the water. Thus, the oxygen in the water is used up by the increased amount of organisms that break down matter. Chemical pollution refers to contamination of water by industrial and agricultural waste such as metals, detergents and pesticides. In addition, it may be caused by oil spillage. Finally, ground water pollution is caused by seepage of chemicals through the soil and into underground water sources such as wells and boreholes. This pollution is caused by human activities although some are natural as found in Bangladesh laced with arsenic. Excess fertilizer, animal manure and waste effluent, contain nutrients that stimulate excess plant and algae growth in the fresh water bodies; they cause the decomposing plants and animals to use the oxygen to depletion causing the death of the organisms and animals, as well as the plants. Agricultural and chemical waste like DDT that is persistent insecticides and pesticides accumulate in the fresh water harming fish and birds. In addition, oil from oil spills and coagulated chemicals from industries cause the birds in the water bodies to have their wings and feathers clogged up thus are unable to fly. Human and fecal waste may contain disease carrying organisms and pathogens, which causes cholera and typhoid among humans which may cause death and disease outbreaks. Chemical pollutants that find their

Friday, January 24, 2020

The HIV & AIDS Virus :: HIV, AIDS, Health

Citations AIDS.org - news, treatment information, and other resources. www.aids.org/ HIV and AIDS Activities - information from the FDA Office of Special Health Issues. www.fda.gov/oashi/aids/hiv.html Specialized Information Services Home Page - US National Library ... - ... Library of Medicine (NLM) is responsible for information resources and services in toxicology, environmental health, chemistry, HIV/AIDS, and specialized ... www.sis.nlm.nih.gov CDC-NCHSTP-Divisions of HIV/AIDS Prevention (DHAP) Home Page - ... CDC - Divisions of HIV / AIDS Prevention Home Page; logo: HIV / AIDS Prevention National Center for HIV, STD and TB Prevention Divisions of HIV/AIDS Prevention. ... www.cdc.gov/hiv/dhap.htm AIDSinfo - federally approved information on AIDS research, clinical trials, and treatment from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Created by merging the AIDS Clinical Trials Information Service (ACTIS) and the HIV/AIDS Treatment Information Service (ATIS). www.hivatis.org/ HIV InSite - comprehensive and reliable information on HIV/AIDS treatment, policy, research, epidemiology, and prevention from the University of California, San Francisco. hivinsite.ucsf.edu/ HIV & AIDS Virus AIDS - acquired immunodeficiency syndrome - was first reported in the United States in 1981 and has since become a major worldwide epidemic. AIDS is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). By killing or damaging cells of the body's immune system, HIV progressively destroys the body's ability to fight infections and certain cancers. People diagnosed with AIDS may get life-threatening diseases called opportunistic infections, which are caused by microbes such as viruses or bacteria that usually do not make healthy people sick. More than 790,000 cases of AIDS have been reported in the United States since 1981, and as many as 900,000 Americans may be infected with HIV. This epidemic is growing more rapidly among minority populations and is a leading killer of African-American males ages 25 to 44. According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), AIDS affects nearly seven times more African Americans and three times more Hispanics than whites. Transmission of HIV Having unprotected sex with an infected partner most commonly spreads HIV. The virus can enter the body through the lining of the vagina, vulva, penis, or mouth during sex. HIV also is spread through contact with infected blood. Before donated blood was screened for evidence of HIV infection and before heat-treating techniques to destroy HIV in blood products were introduced. HIV was transmitted through transfusions having the contaminated blood or blood components. Today, because of blood screening and heat treatment, the risk of getting HIV from such transfusions is extremely small.

Thursday, January 16, 2020

Factors affecting intellectual development

Factors affecting intellectual development There are two factors that greatly affect intelligence: 1. heredity 2. environment -Whichever has a bigger influence remains a debate until now because some studies proved that heredity has a bigger influence on intelligence while some studies showed the opposite. The important point is that the interplay of both heredity and environment is essential for maximum development of the intellectual abilities of the individual. Other factors affecting Intelligence: 1. CultureDifferent cultures foster different patterns of ability. For instance, students from Sri Lanka showed higher score in verbal ability than the Americans. -This can be explained by the fact that in Sri Lanka, the philosophers and the poets were admired rather than the scientists or engineers. 2. Sex It is not true that males are more intelligent than females. However, studies show that boys excel girls in spatial ability, in problem solving, and numerical ability whereas girls e xcel boys in memory, reasoning, and fluency.The difference is not due to solve problems since they will be the heads of the families. Girls have been trained to do light work since they will be the homemakers, anyway. 3. Health Studies have shown that high IQ goes with healthy condition of the body. -In school; healthy children have better chances of learning, they can concentrate better in their studies and they are often active and enthusiastic about classroom activities. 4. Race No one race is endowed with better intelligence than others.Differences in achievement of races are due to better opportunities and facilities found in developed countries. 5. Socio-economic status Studies have shown that children from higher socio-economic scored higher in intelligence tests. -Again, greater opportunities and money account for this. The rich can send their children to better schools and can provide stimulating environment to their children. However, there are geniuses and idiots among th em as there are among the poor. By xhacura

Tuesday, January 7, 2020

Functional And Product Matrix Structure - 1570 Words

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